Indonesia Establishes its National Payment Gateway
The Indonesian central bank, Bank Indonesia ("BI") recently issued BI Regulation No. 19/8/PBI/2017 on National Payment Gateway ("BI Regulation") as part of its effort to actualize the independency of Indonesia's national payment system, especially in respect of all financial transactions carried-out in Indonesia. By issuing the BI Regulation, BI started the process to establish the National Payment Gateway ("NPG") which has two (2) key objectives. First, the interconnectivity of all existing payment channels; and second, the interoperability of various payment instruments which are currently existing and used in Indonesia. The objectives are to achieve the single overarching goal of increasing non-cash transactions in Indonesia. We understand that soon, BI will also issue a Members of Board of Governors Regulation (Peraturan Anggota Dewan Gubernur or "PADG") to complement and further regulate the implementation of the NPG. The desire to establish the NPG is not unique to Indonesia, other countries sch as China and Singapore have also established their respective NPG.
The NPG is defined as a system which consists of standard, switching, and services functions based on a set of rules and arrangement to nationally integrate payment instruments and channels. In general, the implementation of NPG involves two parties, namely the NPG Organizers and the NPG-Connected Parties. The NPG Organizers comprise of (i) Standard Institution, (ii) Switching Institution and (iii) Services Institution, whereas the NPG-Connected Parties comprise of (i) issuers, (ii) acquirers, (iii) Payment Gateway Organizers, as well as (iv) other parties determined as such by BI.
- NPG Organizers
- Standard Institution
The new BI Regulation introduces Standard Institution, which main responsibility is to prepare, develop and manage standardized technical and operational specifications for the interconnectivity and interoperability of payment instruments, payment channels, switching and the overall security of the payment system ("Standard"), under the guidance and supervision of BI.
To be appointed by BI as a Standard Institution, an entity has to submit a written request to BI evidencing fulfilment of the stipulated criteria, inter alia:
- having been established as an Indonesian legal entity;
- representing the national payment system industry (i.e., principal, issuer, acquirer, clearing organizer, and settlement organizer); and
- having the competence to prepare, develop and manage Standard for the interconnectivity and interoperability of various payment instruments and channels.
- Switching Institution
The Switching Institution is the focus of the NPG in meeting the interoperable and interconnected objectives of the domestic payment system. To carry out switching business, a prospective Switching Institution has to obtain approval from BI by submitting written request to BI and providing the following information:
- Whether it has a switching license from BI pursuant to the BI Regulation No. 18/40/PBI/2016 on Payment Transactions Processing ("PBI PTP");
- Whether it has executed domestic payment process using its infrastructure (including system, application, data centre, and disaster recovery centre) in Indonesia;
- It is at least 80% owned by an Indonesian entity or national and with direct or indirect foreign ownership not exceeding 20% as proven by prevailing shareholding composition documents and statement letter;
- It is capable of and has the capacity to perform Switching functions in NPG, which includes having (i) an organizational structure, (ii) sufficient human resource, (iii) written policy and procedure, and (iv) reliable infrastructure; and
- Whether it has paid-up capital of at least IDR 50,000,000,000 (fifty billion Rupiah).
The current measures imposed by BI Regulation on Switching Institution are in line with the current blueprint of the Switching entities regulated by BI. However, the regulation of BI merely sets a new minimum threshold to support the interconnectivity of national payment system.
Given the relatively high capital requirement, it would be interesting to see whether such requirement will hinder the establishment of an Indonesian majority owned Switching Institution. Or whether the high capital requirement is intended to protect existing companies and providing a barrier for new entries. Related to the capital requirement there is also restriction on foreign investment. We should note that the maximum 20% foreign ownership is very strict compared to for example investment in Indonesian conventional banks, which is open to 99% foreign ownership.
- Services Institution
The third NPG Organizer under BI Regulation is the Services Institution, tasked to manage services provided to fulfil the needs of retail payment system industry ("Services") in NPG ecosystem. The obligations of the Services Institution include:
- to maintain the payment transaction security and customer data through the development of security feature and the implementation of end-to-end encryption in the payment transaction processing;
- to conduct reconciliation, clearing, and settlement, which also includes monitoring of data and operational activities of Switching Institutions;
- to develop the system for fraud prevention, risk management and mitigation;
- to manage the life cycle of secure access module and mobile apps;
- to settle dispute of payment transaction as a form of customer protection;
- to execute other related tasks as prescribed by BI.
Unlike other NPG Organizers, Service Institutions are more extensively regulated. To be approved as a Services Institution, an applicant has to submit a written application to BI evidencing:
- the applicant is duly established as a limited liability company under Indonesian law;
- the applicant has the capacity to perform the Services function in NPG, including having an organizational structure, sufficient human resources, written policy and procedures, and infrastructure in Indonesia; and
- its shares are directly or indirectly owned by a Switching Institution and Conventional Bank based on its Business Activities (Bank Umum berdasarkan Kegiatan Usaha or BUKU) category 4 whose majority shares are owned by Indonesian nationals and/or legal entities.
- Standard Institution
- NPG-Connected Parties
Issuers are Bank or Non-Bank Entities which issue payment instruments, including card-based payment instruments such as credit card, debit card, and electronic money. The foregoing payment instruments are the source of fund that will be processed through the NPG.
Acquirers are Bank or Non-Bank Entities which cooperate with merchants, and process the payment transaction data issued by another party. The acquirers are also responsible for the settlement of payment to the merchant.
- Payment Gateway Organizer
Payment Gateway Organizers are Bank or Non-Bank entities which organize electronic services which enable merchants to process payment transaction using payment instruments such as cards, electronic money, and/or proprietary channel.
- Other Parties
Other Parties are parties other than Issuer, Acquirer and Payment Gateway Organizer determined as NPG-Connected Party by BI.
- Pricing Scheme
Pursuant to BI Regulation, Parties of NPG shall comply with pricing scheme that will be determined by BI and further regulated under PADG. We understand that BI intends to set the pricing scheme to be lower than the current market price for transaction processing. By setting a lower price, BI aims to increase the acceptance and use of non-cash payment instruments, as well as to improve the efficiency, competitiveness, and innovation in respect of Indonesia’s payment system. In determining the pricing scheme, BI will also take into account recommendations from other actors in payment system industry such as principal company, issuer company, acquirer company, clearing institution and settlement institution.
- National Branding
All Parties of NPG will be required to comply with national branding requirement. The national branding requirement is a set of requirements in relation to national logo, expansion of national non-cash payment acceptance, and domestic processing. Correspondingly, BI will designate a national logo which shall be included in all payment instruments and channels and all NPG-Connected Parties are obliged to accept all payment instruments using such logo. Provision on national branding is expected to be further regulated under the PADG.
- Reporting Obligation
Under the new BI Regulation, there is a set of reporting obligation that must be fulfilled by the NPG Organizers in conducting their business activities. This reporting obligation consists of periodical report and incidental report. Timeframe and content of the report submitted by the NPG organizers differ from one another.
For Standard Institution, the periodical reports shall be submitted to BI quarterly and annually. While, incidental reports will be required for the following:
- change of capital structure and/or shareholding composition as well as the composition of the management board;
- change of data and information contained in the application documents submitted to BI when Standard Institution applied for BI's approval; and
- any other matters as may be required by BI.
- disruption in conducting the Services and any measure that has been taken;
- change of management board composition;
- force majeure in carrying out the Services;
- change of data and information in the application documents submitted to BI when Service Institution applies for BI's approval; and
- any other matters as may be required by BI.
- Peraturan Bank Indonesia No. 19/8/PBI/2017 tentang Gerbang Pembayaran Nasional (National Payment Gateway).
- Peraturan Bank Indonesia No. 18/40/PBI/2016 tentang Penyelenggaraan Pemrosesan Transaksi Pembayaran.
- Peraturan Bank Indonesia No. 14/2/PBI/2012 tentang Perubahan atas Peraturan Bank Indonesia No. 11/11/PBI/2009 tentang Penyelenggaraan Kegiatan Alat Pembayaran dengan Menggunakan Kartu.
- Peraturan Pemerintah No. 29 Tahun 1999 tentang Pembelian Saham Bank Umum.
AHP Client Alert is a publication of Assegaf Hamzah & Partners. It brings an overview of selected Indonesian laws and regulations to the attention of clients but is not intended to be viewed or relied upon as legal advice. Clients should seek advice of qualified Indonesian legal practitioners with respect to the precise effect of the laws and regulations referred to in AHP Client Alert. Whilst care has been taken in the preparation of AHP Client Alert, no warranty is given as to the accuracy of the information it contains and no liability is accepted for any statement, opinion, error or omission.